Haplogroup Trees

One way to think about Haplogroups is as major branches on the family tree of Homo Sapiens.
These Haplogroup branches characterize the early migrations of population groups. As a result, Haplogroups are usually associated with a geographic region.
Haplogroup trees tend to be constructed sideways or downwards (unlike the traditional evolutionary tree).
Phylogenetic tree presented in typical inverted fashion: 
Inverted Tree

Figure of Trees An African acacia tree silhouette and the Y-DNA haplogroup phylogenetic relationships that symbolically show the root of humans in Africa with their subsequent variation and flourishing in the rest of the world. 


mtDNA Tree

Genetically accurate Haplogroup trees are very complex. A Haplogroup tree can be presented showing the detailed branching of Haplogroup mutations hierarchically from the originator onwards, or in relation to specific big mutations and geographic regions, as in the L-M-N mitochondrial split between Africa and Asia. The branching of mutations can also be represented in relation to chronology. Thus Haplogroup trees can express sequence, region and chronology of Haplogroup branches.

Y HaploTree

The Y chromosome contains two types of ancestral marker. Short Tandem Repeats (STRs), which trace recent ancestry and, SNPs, which document ancient ancestry. SNPs are small, rare DNA mutations (approx one mutation every few hundred generations) that are passed on to offspring. As new SNPs are discovered they are named after the lab, and the order in which they are found.

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