Africa North Haplogroup E

Only a paternal line is known about for the route along the Nile Valley to East and North Africa.

Haplogroup E has since become one of the most prolific and widespread lines.

East and North Africa show greater diversity of Haplogroups than the West and South of Africa.

There are more than 40 ethnic groups in Kenya. The main groups are Bantu, who migrated from W. Africa, the Nilotic people who originate from Sudan, and the Hamitic group, who were mainly pastoral tribes from Ethiopia and Somalia.

Arab traders established relations with east Africa over 1,000 years ago and a significant number of Arab immigrants reside on the coast. Mixing of the coastal Bantu peoples with Arab immigrants led to the emergence of the Swahili people and language. The Swahili people worked for many centuries with the indigenous population and expanded their trade inland and to the south, with other groups including ancestral tribes of the Somali Bantu.

The peopling of north Africa has been completely different from the sub-Saharan region. The Sahara Desert splits the African continent in two.  Consequently, migrations in north Africa may have followed an east-west-east pattern; constrained by the Mediterranean Sea to the north and the Sahara Desert to the south.
Genetic studies have emphasized the contrast between north African and sub-Saharan populations:
•The Mauritanians and west Saharans bear substantial, though not dominant, mtDNA affinity with sub-Saharans;
•The majority of maternal ancestors of the Berbers must have come from Europe and the Near East since the Neolithic.

However, whilst the Mediterranean Sea separates the African continent from Europe (the far west of the Asian continent), since the time of the Phoenicians, the northwest African coast has been integrated into the Mediterranean world and this seaward orientation separated the Maghreb (northwest Africa) from the south. Equally, whilst the Sahara Desert has gradually become more arid over the past 5,000 years,  historical records show extensive trade routes across the desert.

The result is a region with a high level of ethnic diversity.

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