Sami mtDNA samples tested by Tambets and her colleagues were 56.8% U5b in Norwegian Sami and 26.5% U5b in Swedish Sami.
A smaller proportion of Hg U among the Sami falls into U4.
Sami U5b falls into subclade U5b1b1 also present 3 % or higher inKarelia,Finland, andNorth Russia. The Sami U5b1 motif is additionally found in very low frequencies in the Caucasus region due to recent migration fromEurope.
38% of the Sami U5b1b1 mtDNA contain a transition at np 16148, which is exclusive to the Sami.
Achilli and colleagues noted that the Sami and the Berbers share U5b1b, which they estimated at 9,000 years old, and argue that this provides evidence for a radiation of the haplogroup from the Franco-Cantabrian refuge area of south-westernEurope.
Haplogroup V is the most frequent haplogroup in Swedish Sami and present at lower frequencies in Norwegian and Finnish subpopulations.
The divergence time for the Sami haplogroup V sequences was estimated by Ingman and Gyllensten at 7,600 ya. Torroni and colleagues have suggested that the spread of haplogroup V in Scandinavia and inEastern Europeis due to late Pleistocene/ early Holocene expansion from a Franco-Cantabrian glacial refugium.
Haplogroup V is also significant in East Europe and V lineages with HVS-I transitions 16153 and 16298 that are frequent in the Sami are also more widespread in East thanWest Europe. Haplogroup V might have reached Fennoscandia via Central orEast Europe. Pre-V mtDNA are characteristic of Southwest Europe andNorthwest Africabut absent among the Sami
Haplogroup Z is found at low frequency in the Sami and North Asian populations but is virtually absent in West and East Europe. Several conserved substitutions group the Sami Z lineages with those fromFinlandand the Volga-Ural region ofRussia. The estimated dating of the lineage at 2,700 years suggests a small, relatively recent contribution of people from the Volga-Ural region to the Sami population.
Haplogroup I1 is the most common haplogroup inSweden.
The Jokkmokk Sami inSwedenhas similar structure to Swedes and Finns for haplogroup I1 and N1c.
The most common Y haplogroup among the Sami is N1c, with I1 as a close second.
Haplogroup R1a is mostly seen in Swedish and Kola Sami populations, with a low level among the Finnish Sami.
Tambets et al suggest N1c and R1a reached Fenno-Scandia fromEast Europe, where these haplogroups can be found in high frequencies.
However R1a1a is common among East Europeans speaking Indo-European languages and is common among neighbours of the Sami, while N1c is common among the Finns and correlates with the distribution of the Uralic languages.